The European Council for Fatwa and Research

Final Statement

The 23rd Ordinary Session of

The European Council for Fatwa and Research

Held in Sarajevo,

Bosnia and Herzegovina    


During the period

16th – 19th of Sha’ban 1434 HJ

25th – 38th of June, 2013

In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful


    The final Statement of the Twenty-third Ordinary Session of the European Council for Fatwa and Research was held in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina during the period 16th – 19th Sha’ban, 1434 Hijra corresponding to 25th– 38th of June, 2013


      Praise be to Allah, the Worlds’ Sustainer, and peace be upon our leader Muhammad and on all his family and his Companions and those who follow his guidance until the Day of Judgment.

   In response to invitation extended by the Mashiakha “the Islamic Community” located in the good land of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina by Allah’s Grace and His Assistance the Twenty-third Ordinary Session of the European Council for Fatwa and Research was held during the period 16th – 19th Sha’ban, 1434 Hijra corresponding to 25th – 38th of June, 2013, chaired by His Eminence Sheikh Dr. Yusuf Al-Qaradawi, the Chairman, and attended by most of the Members of the ECFR and a number of guests and observers.

      The Twenty-third Session, attended by Dr. Baker Ali Izzat Begovich, Member of the Presidency Council and the Current President of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Sheikh Husein kavazovic Head of the Mashiakha and the Mufti of Bosnia and Herzegovina in the company of a number of members of the Mashiakha, and diplomats, was inaugurated in the Khosrow Ghazi library. Included in this welcoming inauguration ceremony was a talk, delivered by Professor Dr. Ali Quradaghi, Deputy Chairman of the ECFR, introducing the European Council for Fatwa and Research and its objectives, stressing that the most significant is its being a religious authority for Muslims in Europe and providing solutions to problems confronting them. This was followed by a talk delivered by Dr. Baker Ali Izzat Begovich, Member of the Presidency Council and the Current President of Bosnia and Herzegovina in which he paid tribute to its role and its Chairman’s role in serving Muslims in Europe and their progress, performed by the ECFR and the Chairman.  Dr. Baker Ali Izzat Begovich also welcomed the ECFR’s 23rd session in his country and invited the ECFR to hold more sessions in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the near future. The succeeding talk was delivered by His Eminence Imam Sheikh Yousuf Al-Qaradawi, Chairman of the ECFR, in which he elaborated on the role and the significance of the ECFR for Muslims residing in Europe. In addition, he stressed that the ECFR is an academic centre, an integrated part of the Islamic academies in the Muslim world. Sheikh Al-Qaradawi explained that the methodology adopted by the ECFR is encompassed in the scope of moderation founded on taking into positive consideration people’s interests in this life and the life to come. He added that the ECFR usually issues its Fatwas and resolutions on the basis of authentic Islamic proofs supported by detailed papers written accurately in light of the context of the proofs and the schools of Fiqh from the time of Muhammad’s Companions and until now classifying these opinions, based on more authentic proofs and achieving interests of Muslim existence in the West included in the Islamic objectives, as preponderant. Stressing the Bosnian dedication to preserving their Muslim identity and some of its historical aspects and distinctiveness, His Eminence Sheikh Al-Qaradawi also highlighted the place of Bosnia and Herzegovina in Muslims’ hearts. He also extended his thanks to the Bosnian president for attending the opening meeting and the Mashiakha “Islamic Community” for inviting the ECFR to hold its session for the third time in Bosnia since it has been established.   

This was followed by a welcoming talk delivered by His eminence the head of the Mashiakha in which he illustrated the role performed by the Mashiakha in serving the Muslim community in Bosnia and preserving their Muslim identity. He also expressed the Mashiakha’s aptitude to cooperate with the ECFR. This inauguration was concluded by prayers made by Dr. Mustafa Ceric.    


       Then the ECFR resumed the agenda of its Twenty-third session deliberating on the main topic of this session i.e. “The Islamic Rules of Foods and Beverages Pertinent to Muslims in Europe”. Twelve papers were submitted on this point and three papers on “The Islamic Rules Regarding Paying the Monetary Value of Zakat-ul-Fitr”[1] and extensively deliberated. This was followed by reviewing questions submitted to the general secretariat and Fatawas were issued.

On the basis of its deliberation on the submitted papers the ECFR reached the following resolutions, Fataws and recommendations:

First: resolutions


Resolution 1/23

The Carcasses and the Foods of the People of the Book

    Upon reading the submitted papers and practical studies on this issue and lengthy deliberation conducted by Muslim jurists and experts, the ECFR resolves as follows:

First: Confirming the following points included in resolution No. 95 (3/10) issued by the International Islamic Fiqh Academy:

First: The Islamic legitimacy of killing animals and birds can be attained via one of the following:

  • Dhabh, which involves the cutting of windpipe (throat), food-tract (oesophagus) and the two jugular veins, is the Islamically preferred method of killing sheep, cattle and birds intended for consumption. It is permissible for others.
  • Nahr, which involves stabbing the pit i.e. central front bottom part of the neck, is the Islamically preferred method of killing camels and their likes. It is permissible for cattle.
  • Aqr involves causing wound in any part of the body of the animal, which is not under control, be it wild but permissible to consume or tamed. However, if it is controlled alive then it should be subjected to Dhabh or Nahr.   

Second: The Prerequisites of the Islamic legitimacy of killing animals and birds:    

  • It should be performed by an adult or a senior child Muslim, Christian or Jewish. Animals and birds, killed by idol worshippers, atheists, apostates, magi, and all the other non-believers of Islam except the Jews and the Christians are not Halal (Permissible to consume).
  • A sharp tool, whose blade cuts easily and drains blood, metal or otherwise but not a tooth nor a hoof should be used. Consequently forbidden is the consumption of the strangled, whether by their actions or otherwise, the killed by a blow or a fall, or by goring, and the mauled by wild beasts unless slaughtered while still alive.
  • The name of Allah must be invoked (mentioned) at the time of killing animals and birds. Nevertheless, if forgotten, they are still classified as Halal.



Third: Etiquettes of the Islamic legitimacy of killing animals and birds, welfare and clemency prior to, during and after killing:     

    Tools used to kill animals and birds shall be sharp but not be sharpened within their sight nor shall the killing be executed within the sight of another animal. The killed animals and birds shall not suffer; their parts shall not be cut nor shall they be skinned or immersed in hot water or plucked unless their souls have utterly departed their bodies.

Fourth: Animals and birds subjected to Islamic legitimacy of killing shall be free from the contagious diseases and shall not be harmful to consumers in any sense. This point must be confirmed regarding meat in the market and meat imported.

Fifth: Since it is deemed to be the most merciful method causing suffering the least, no level of unconsciousness is included in the original procedures of the Islamic legitimacy of killing animals and birds. Companies in charge of killing big animals are requested to develop their means in a way that achieves this value in a perfect manner. (ENDS)  

Second: Since no level of unconsciousness is included in the original procedures of the Islamic legitimacy of killing animals and birds, in the case where this is difficult to observe, animals and birds should not die as a result of causing a level of unconsciousness or because of stunning before they are subjected to Islamic legitimacy of killing.

Third: The food of the people of the Book:

    By virtue of the Qur’an consumption of the food of the people of the Book is permissible. Allah says: “On this day all things that are clean have been made lawful for you; and made lawful for you is the food of the people of the Book, as your food is made lawful for them.” {Trans. 05:05} The term “the people of the Book” refers to the Christians and the Jews. This rule remains intact even though certain articles of their faith e.g. the Trinity are not in harmony with the original monotheism as this and other issues are mentioned prior to this rule in the same chapter. Nevertheless, the food of the people of the Book is lawful for Muslims provided that its legitimacy is approved of by their rabbis and priests, that it is not meat of animals or birds that died prior to killing and that it is not pork since these categories are labelled as unlawful for Muslims in the Qur’an.

    In this context the ECFR stresses its resolution No. 2 issued in the 3rd session recommending Muslims residing in the West to have their own abattoirs to have peace of mind and preserve their religious and cultural identity.  The ECFR appeals to the West to recognize Muslims’ religious distinctiveness. Part of this recognition entails that Muslims, just like others e.g. Jews, should have the right of practicing the Islamic legitimacy of killing birds and animals. The ECFR also appeals to the Islamic countries to import Halal meat supervised by entrusted Islamic centres based in the West.   


Resolution 2/23

Islamic Authorities Supervising Foods and Meats 

Upon reading the submitted papers and practical studies on this issue and lengthy deliberation conducted by Muslim jurists and experts, the ECFR resolves as follows:

  • It is necessary to establish dedicated and specialized Islamic authorities to perform their role professionally and transparently. Due to the serious rights and responsibilities they incur, attestations issued by these Islamic authorities should be true. Islamic authorities issuing them take full responsibility for them before Allah and those who depend on them.
  • The ECFR recommends the Islamic authorities to observe their duties towards Allah and to form a supreme authority for the supervising authorities to supervise, organize and follow up their work. The ECFR does not mind being involved in this. These authorities should apply the Islamic criteria of the Islamic legitimacy of killing animals and birds. In addition, they should avail of the international criteria of supervision and the criteria, which include the Islamic, professional, technical and other specifications, issued by the British Muslim Council. The ECFR formed a committee assigning them the duty of drafting “the Halal Food Charter” including the Islamic, professional, and technical specifications hoping to present a reference to the supervising authorities, if Allah wills.

Resolution 3/23

Istihala (Denaturation) and Istihlak (Diminish)

Upon reading the submitted papers and practical studies on this issue and lengthy deliberation conducted by Muslim jurists and experts, the ECFR resolves as follows:

First: Islamic Perception of Istihala (Denaturation) and Istihlak (Diminish):

Since Istihala (Denaturation) refers to conversion of one material to another losing its structure in form and essence, it impacts on the Islamic rule altered according to the conversion of materials. For instance, juice made of grapes is Halal (permissible) yet if it is converted to intoxicant it turns into Haram (impermissible) and then if it turns into vinegar it becomes Halal whether it turns itself as agreed upon or it is turned by human intervention according to the preponderant view supported by authentic proofs.

Second: Since Istihlak (Diminish), according to Muslim jurists, refers to material losing its structure as a result of being mixed with a large quantity of water or liquid to the extent that that material diminishes in this liquid, it impacts on the Islamic rule. For instance, should a large quantity of pure water be added to an amount of impure water, it will be a pure mixture since the structure of this impure water i.e. colour, taste and smell disappears.


Following is examples of Istihala and Istihlak of foods and medications including converted prohibited ingredients:

  • When blood, used in some foods, is converted to another material it becomes Halal, whereas if not converted and it preserves its structure it remains Haram. In this context the ECFR stresses the conclusion issued in the 9th medical Fiqh seminar of the Islamic organization for medical sciences held at Casablanca in June 1997 stating that the medical and dietary use of the biochemical ingredients extracted from impure or Haram materials, such as blood and drainage, not deemed as converted materials from an Islamic point of view, are impermissible such as sausages stuffed with blood, children’s’ foods stuffed with blood, etc. They are impure foods, whose consumption is impermissible since they contain unconverted blood.
  • Blood plasma, used in pizzas, soups, sausages and pastries and also the blood added to milk products, a number of medications and children’s foods, are not blood in form nor in essence and consequently these foods are Halal. In this context the ECFR stresses the conclusion issued in the 9th medical Fiqh seminar of the Islamic organization for medical sciences held at Casablanca in June 1997 stating that blood plasma, deemed to be a cheap alternative of albumen, which may be used for pizzas, soups, bread, milk products, children’s foods and medications and floor, is converted to another material different to blood in name, essence and structure. Hence and despite the variant opinion held by some of the attending members, the Islamic rule for blood is not applicable here.  
  • It is impermissible to use a medication, including in its ingredients blood or its derivatives, in the case when an alternative medication of the same efficiency is available and vice versa, since the need for a prohibited medication, excluding intoxicants mentioned in the Qur’an, is deemed to be a necessity according to the Hanafi and the Shafi’i schools and the authentic narration of Abu Thaur and Ibn Hasim schools.   


Third: The Islamic rule regarding cheese made of abomasum of animals not subjected to the Islamic legitimacy of killing:

Muslim jurists expressed a number of opinions regarding the legitimacy of consuming cheese made of abomasum of animals not subjected to the Islamic legitimacy of killing. The majority of the Muslim scholars deem it impure and consequently cheese made thereof is Haram except in the opinion of those who recognize its conversion. A number of the Muslim jurists, e.g. Abu Hanifa, Daoud Al-Dhahiri and a narration reported about Ahmad, perceive it as pure and hence it is Halal. This opinion is classified as preponderant by the Sheikh of Islam Ibn Taymiyah since Muhammad’s Companions, when being in a non-Muslim land, consumed cheese made of abomasum of animals slaughtered by Magi, which is prohibited for Muslims, or dead animals. This opinion is adopted by the ECFR since it makes life easy for Muslims.  


Forth: Gelatin made of skin of pigs, dead animals and their bones:

Resolution has been adjourned for more researches.

Resolution 4/23

Paying the Monetary Value of Ramadan’s Zakat

Upon reading the submitted papers and practical studies on this issue and lengthy deliberation conducted by Muslim jurists and experts, the ECFR resolves as follows:

First: There is a number of proofs supporting the legitimacy of paying the monetary value of Zakat-ul-Fitr, also known as Fitra. This opinion is adopted by a number of Muhammad’s Companions, their Followers and jurists belonging to various schools. Abu Ishaq Al-Subai’i narrated this opinion about those whom he met including Ali Ibn Abu Talib, Al-Barra Ibn Azib and others. This opinion was held by Al-Hassan Al-Basri, Atta Ibn Abi Rabah and Caliph Unar Ibn Abdelaziz. This opinion is adopted by Abu Hanifa School, Sufian, Al-Thauri and Al-Bukhari.

Second: Muslims should take the poor’s interest into positive consideration. So if it lies in paying them the monetary value of Zakat, then let Zakat-ul-Fitr be paid in this way. Nowadays paying the monetary value of Zakat serves the best interest of the poor and facilitates the affairs of the payers of Zakat. The monetary value of Zakat should be evaluated according to the economic standard of the payers’ country of residence. Nevertheless, in the case of famine and relief, Zakat should be paid in the form of the common food consumed in the place of concern or alternatively the monetary value of Zakat could be paid to relief agencies and Islamic organizations and they buy food and distribute it on the right beneficiaries.

Third: Taking into consideration the public interest the ECFR urges Muslims to pay Zakat-ul-Fitr in the beginning of Ramadan especially if it is transferred abroad.  

Forth: The ECFR recommends Islamic centres, mosques and human relief agencies in Europe, when evaluating Zakat-ul-Fitr, to consider the value of a handful of the common food consumed in the country of concern. It exhorts them neither to exaggerate it otherwise they will overburden the payers of Zakat nor to underestimate it otherwise they will decrease the poor’s rights, since the ultimate objective of Zakat-ul-Fitr is to provide for the poor so that they might not be in need on Eid-ul-Fitr (the festival celebrated on the first day of the next month of Ramadan.)

Second Fatwas:

Fatwa 01/23

The legitimacy of Offering Taraweeh Prayer

Question: Muslims residing in Europe are challenged during summer by the late commencement of the time of ‘Ishaa (night prayer) and consequently a number of them apply the Fatwa of combining Maghrib (after sunset prayer) and ‘Ishaa, which by the coming of the month of Ramadan is not observed, since Muslims are willing to offer Taraweeh prayer and hence they pray Maghrib, go home to break their fast and then return to mosques to pray Taraweeh. The late time of ‘Isha followed by Taraweeh prayer creates a difficulty for Muslims especially when Fajr (dawn prayer) is offered in an early time. Is it legitimate for Muslims to offer Taraweeh prayer prior to ‘Isha


Answer: The time between Maghrib and ‘Isha is a time for Nafilah (voluntary prayers). As for Taraweeh’s time, it is after offering ‘Isha prayer in conformity with the practice of the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him. On this basis the majority of the Muslim jurists state that Taraweeh’s time is after offering ‘Isha prayer.

In his book Al-Insaf, Al-Mawirdi states that according to authentic opinions expressed by the School of Fiqh and the opinion adopted the majority of the Muslim jurists Taraweeh’s time commences after offering ‘Isha prayer and its Sunnah (voluntary prayer offered after ‘Isha). Nevertheless, some recent Hanafi and Hanbali jurists approved of a lesser opinion in their school according to which Taraweeh can be offered prior to ‘Isha. According to Badr Al-Deen Al-Aini and Ibn Abdeen, two Hanafi jurists, three opinions are expressed regarding the time of Taraweeh; the entire night, prior to ‘Isha and after ‘Isha but before Watr (voluntary prayer Muslims offer at the end of their day). According to Al-Mawirdi, a Hanbali jurist, some recent Hanbali jurists approved of the legitimacy of offering the Taraweeh prayer prior to‘Isha.   

Taking into consideration the hardship caused by offering the Taraweeh prayer after ‘Isha and on the basis of the above-mentioned opinions, in the areas where ‘Isha time commences late Muslims have two options:

  • That they break their fast and in half an hour or a period of time they agree upon they gather to offer Maghrib, ‘Isha and Taraweeh
  • That they offer Maghrib prayer and then go home to break their fast and then in half an hour or a period they agree upon gather to offer Taraweeh and then pray ‘Isha in its time.
  • That they take sacks to break their fast in mosques, then pray Maghrib and then Taraweeh and then pray ‘Isha in its time.

The above-mentioned solutions are permissible and Islamic centres should apply what is convenient to them. In this context the ECFR stresses its previous recommendations regarding observing the neighbours’ rights and shunning causing them disturbance or harm especially in Ramadan’s nights, since it is not accepted in Islam to commit a major sin by violating others’ rights particularly when they are neighbours in order to fulfil a Nafilah (voluntary prayer).     

Fatwa 23/2

Nursing by Drugs

Question: A barren lady adopted a child from an orphanage, who she would like to breastfeed so that he would be a Mahram (someone having a level of relationship deemed to be an impediment to marriage).  This lady was advised by a doctor that breastfeeding can be generated by drugs even if woman is unmarried or barren. Is this legitimate in Islam?    

Answer: Muslim jurists elaborated on the issue of breastfeeding by a virgin and non-virgin woman. The majority of the Muslim jurists state that in this case the lady becomes his nursing mother and this is deemed an impediment to marriage. According to Ibn Al-Munthir, this opinion represents a consensus of the Muslim jurists. In his book ‘Jami’ Al-‘Ulum’ Ibn Rajab, a Hanbali jurist, states: “If a lady breastfeeds a child, while being unmarried whether she is virgin or otherwise, she becomes his nursing mother, which is deemed an impediment to marriage. According to the famously narrated opinion about Imam Ahmad, it is not deemed impediment to marriage unless the lady is married. This opinion is held by Imam Shafi’i as well. In his book Al-Insaf, Al-Mawirdi states: “If breastfeeding is generated and the lady has never been pregnant before, then nursing the baby is not deemed an impediment to marriage.” Hence, this is his opinion regarding virgins justified by the perception that it is not milk but rather a moisture, since milk is that that grows bones and flesh.  

In light of the above-mentioned opinion it seems that deeming it, i.e. nursing the baby in the way described above, an impediment to marriage is the preponderant opinion since it is milk the baby sucks and consequently it makes no difference whether the lady is virgin or married or barren.

As for the husband, in Al-Mudauwana Sahnun narrates that Ibn Al-Qasim states: “I asked: ‘In the case of a married woman, who breastfeeds a baby prior to her pregnancy and she has never given birth, do you think, according to Malik, this milk is related to the husband?’ He said: ‘I have never heard anything from Malik in this regard. However, Yes, I think.” In other words, the result of breastfeeding does not affect the husband since he has nothing to do with it even if he is the reason of generating the milk. If the reason is negated then the result is negated. This is just like the case where this lady breastfeeds a baby prior to her marriage she will be deemed a nursing mother but this will not affect the husband.

What do doctors and specialized people think? Is that material generated by drugs or others is just like the mother’s milk or mostly like the mother’s milk and hence the same rule applies? If that is the case then this nursing is deemed an impediment to marriage (i.e. the baby is her nursing child) and vice versa.

As for the effective amount of nursing, the majority of the Muslim jurists state that the minimum of five times of full stomach breastfeeding done separately are deemed an impediment to marriage, but the Maliki School and their followers deem breastfeeding once as an impediment to marriage. Breastfeeding, perceived as an impediment to marriage, turn the lady that nurses a baby into a nursing mother and this baby becomes a child for her husband so if this child is a girl it is not legitimate for the husband to marry her.

Fatwa 23/2

Medical Care for Premature Children

Question: 1. At the extremes of viability when a baby is born at 23 weeks gestation
in Britain as a neonatal doctor. I have a choice to resuscitate or not even if the baby is born alive.
I have to make a medical judgment on its condition and am allowed not to resuscitate if I think its chance of survival is poor.

  1. In the situation of a baby being dependent on a ventilator and having severe brain haemorrhage as is seen in very premature babies commonly I can chose to not continue ventilation or active treatment if I think it is futile. What would the correct Islamic position be in these circumstances?

Answer: Shari’ah saves no efforts to protect every human life. It classifies killing a soul as a major sin and perceive it as horrible as the killing of all human beings. In the meantime it states that saving a human life is as great the saving of all human lives. In the Qur’an it is stated: “whosoever kills a human being, except (as punishment) for murder or for spreading corruption in the land, it shall be like killing all humanity; and whosoever saves a life, saves the entire human race.”(Trans. 05:32) Allah prefers the children of Adam over all His creatures. Hence, no one is allowed to transgress on whom Allah prefers nor is anyone permitted to be complacent if a soul is killed. On the basis of the above-mentioned resuscitation and ventilation and active treatment for premature children are incumbent duty upon Muslim medical doctors. Life is given and death is caused by Allah. Medical treatment could be a reason of life. This is appropriate when considering Allah’s preference to human beings over all His creatures and also appropriate in light of the duty of saving lives. Nevertheless, if the medical doctor thinks that it is a hopeless case and that there is no point of exerting efforts, he should consult with two medical doctors so that a consensus of three specialized doctors is reached to minimize the possibility of mistake since life protection is imperative. When this consensus is reached then medical treatment can be stopped.

As for the second question about premature babies dependent on a ventilator and having severe brain hemorrhage, there are two different scenarios:

First: If ventilation and resuscitation equipment are not connected to the child, neither the doctor nor the guardian should ask for them as in this case treatment is not a must since it is a hopeless case as it is apparently and as stated by experts.

Second: If the child is connected to ventilation and resuscitation equipment, he/she should remain connected until he/she dies real death confirmed by the death of the brian and the torso otherwise it will be a sin. This Islamic rule cannot be altered by law. The same opinion was expressed in a resolution issued by the International Islamic Fiqh Academy.


Third Recommendations:

The ECFR made a number of recommendations the most prominent of which are as follows:

First: In respect of the topic of this session, the ECFR recommends Muslims; individuals and centres, to support associations of the Muslim consumers’ right in order to work on suggesting new laws guaranteeing Muslims’ rights in Europe and defending their religious dietary distinctiveness, while positive openness towards European society via elaborating on the Islamic teaching of enjoining good and the intertwined links of what is Halal, good and beneficiary on one side and what is Haram, bad and harmful on the other side.     

Second: The ECFR recommends Muslims and reminds them of the duty incumbent upon them towards their brethren oppressed in a number of Islamic countries especially their brothers and sisters in Syria suffering murder, horrible harassment, displacement and destruction of the entire sources of life and that they should make prayers for them and donate to provide foods, clothes and accommodation for tens of thousands of families living in tents inside and outside Syria. This can be done through Ramadan’s Zakat and Zakat of wealth.

The ECFR confirms the usual recommendations issued to Muslims residing in Europe as follows:

  1. Observe all rights and reflect a good image and a benevolent example through words and deeds.
  2. Commit themselves to what is stated in the Holy Qur’an and Sunnah and what Muslim Fuqaha’ (jurists) have unanimously agreed upon regarding the obligation of keeping the requirements of the pledge of security and the terms of citizenship and residence in the countries where they live.
  3. Shun all types of violence and adopt a merciful and wise approach when dealing with all people by virtue of their Islamic obligations and condemn any other behaviour.
  4. The Council also recommends that Muslims in general and those dwelling in the West in particular adhere to Allah’s religion and brotherhood, tolerance, moderation, cooperation in matters of benevolence and righteousness, and adopt quiet dialogue and sound methods to solve controversial problems away from the programmes of strictness and paths of extremism that would distort the image of Islam and badly harm Muslims in general and Muslim minorities in particular. The enemies of Islam and those ignorant of it would defame it and warn others of it and its followers and instigate other nations against it. Allah Almighty says: “Invite (all) to the Way of your Lord with wisdom and beautiful preaching and argue with them in ways that are best and most gracious.” (An-Nahl 125)

The Council concluded the proceedings of the 23nd Session by addressing sincere thanks, prayers and appreciation to the Mashiakha of Bosnia and Herzegovina for hosting this session.. The Council also extends sincere thanks to all the Bosnian brethren, who contribute to the success of this session. The Council expresses sincere thanks to the Bosnian Government for facilitating the holding of this session in it good land and for issuing members of the ECFR with the relevant visas.

The ECFR would like to thank its general secretariat and all the brothers and sisters who contributed to the success of this session.  

Our last prayer is praise be to Allah and may Allah’s peace, blessing and mercy be upon Prophet Muhammad, his family and his Companions.

[1] Also known as Fitra refers to payment of money or commodity made by Muslims in Ramadan, the 9th month of the Muslim calendar