European Council for Fatwa and Research
The Eighteenth Ordinary Session of
The European Council for Fatwa and Research Held in Paris, France
During the period
27th Jumada Al-Akhira- 2nd Rajab, 1429 AH
01 – 05 of July, 2008
In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful
The final statement of the Eighteenth Ordinary Session of the European Council for Fatwa and Research was held in Paris, France, during the period 27th Jumada Al-Akhira – 2nd Rajab, 1429 AH corresponding to 01 – 05 July 2008
Praise be to Allah, the World’s Sustainer, and peace be upon our leader Muhammad and on all his family and his Companions and those who follow his guidance until the Day of Judgment.
By Allah’s Grace and His Assistance, the Eighteenth Ordinary Session of the European Council for Fatwa and Research was held in Paris, France during the period 27th Jumada Al-Akhira – 2nd Rajab, 1429 AH corresponding to 01 – 05 of July, 2008. It was chaired by His Eminence Sheikh Abdullah Ben Baiyah on behalf of the Chairman, and attended by most of the Members of the ECFR and a number of guests and observers. His Eminence, Sheikh Yusuf al-Qaradawi, the Chairman, attended the last two days of this session.
The opening meeting of the Eighteenth Ordinary Session of the European Council for Fatwa and Research was held at The European Institute for Humanities in Paris. In addition to the members of the ECFR, a great number of professors and students from the hosting European Institute, prominent officials of Muslim action in France, and a wide range of French Muslim and non-Muslim guests attended the opening meeting where talks were delivered by a number of hosts, guests and ECFR members. At the end of these talks His Eminence Sheikh Abdullah Ben Baiyah announced the commencement of the agenda of the Eighteenth Ordinary Session.
Then the ECFR resumed the programme of its 18th session commencing with a seminar on “Financial Transactions in Europe”. During this session, fourteen research papers were submitted, discussed and in detail commented on. All researchers, in addition to diagnosing it in a European context, elaborated on the issue of finance and financial transactions supporting their arguments with quotations from the Qur’an and Sunnah. Some researches focused on detailed issues. All this occurred within the first two days according to the agenda of the ECFR. The researches evolved around three foci:
First: Islamic foundational approach:
The following research papers were submitted and deliberated:
“Islamic objectives regarding finance” by Dr. Sheikh Yusuf Al-Qaradawi
“Financial transactions and Islamic objectives” by Sheikh Abdullah Bin Baiyah
“The purposes of wealth, creedal dimensions and ethical principles” by Dr. Essam al-Bashir.
“Moral principles of financial dealings in Europe” by Sheikh Mullah Mustafa Oghlu.
“Human Rights in Islam and its impact on the economic behaviour of Muslims” by Sheikh Rashid Ghannouchi.
“Financial transactions of Muslims in Europe” Dr. Hassan Suhayb.
In their conclusions, it is stated:
Since it is deemed to be a trust given to man as a test, there are Islamic creedal purposes with regard to wealth of which ownership belongs to none save Allah. Pertaining to wealth is a set of regulations i.e. Zakah, purification, legality, illegality, rewards and punishments.
Not only is wealth the factor accomplishing people’s interests, but it is also accomplishing an Islamic objective, i.e. attaining benefits and warding off evil. Hence, wealth is given as one of the five inclusive matters, the preservation of which is an Islamic obligation. Consequently, Islam sets a number of inclusive economic objectives, namely preserving wealth through exerting efforts to reform it, improving it through legal earnings and satisfying the needs of society. On this basis, according to Islam, it is forbidden to spoil or waste wealth.
In the chapter on wealth in Fiqh the term “Transactions” has been frequently repeated. Such a term is a broad term; however, it refers to an act deemed not to be a pure act of worship. In the late Fiqh, it has been commonly applied to refer to financial issues e.g. leases and sales.
Islamic Shari’a has set a number of rules for financial transactions including: Financial transactions can be entered into only when they are legal; originally all financial transactions are permissible unless stated otherwise; originally contracts and conditions should be fulfilled; originally financial transactions are forbidden if one of the parties is oppressed.
Since one of its objectives is that wealth should not be circulated among rich people only, Islamic Shari’a made it incumbent upon the rich that a certain portion, i.e. zakah, should be given to the poor. In the case when this portion is not enough it could be increased. This is the Islamic system of solidarity.
There are Islamic objectives pertaining to financial consumption e.g. the legalization of good things and making them available to people, opposing whoever classify them as forbidden, moderation in spending and consumption, generating prohibition of excessive expenditure, profligacy, parsimony and stinginess, and the prohibition of luxury and harshness with the opulent.
There are morals, pertaining to wealth, based on cooperation to enjoin good and righteousness in order to reform life, accomplish prosperity and build and reform society. These morals prevent the opposite of the above-mentioned e.g. transgression, aggression, cheating, deceiving, devouring people’s wealth illegally, etc. These morals encourage people to improve their wealth through legal methods and prohibit all types of sales and financial transactions leading to corruption. They also forbid monopoly and taking advantage of others’ circumstances e.g. usury, strictly prohibited in Islam and deemed to be one of the seven destructive matters. Allah declared war against whoever takes it. In addition, they forbid achieving profit at the expenses of others, e.g. gambling.
The second researcher, His Eminence Sheikh Abdullah Ben Baiyah, distinctively stressed the paramount importance of applying a moderate approach when dealing with the objectives while not overlooking their relation with the Fiqh rules in order to guarantee reaching a sound deduction. He divided the objectives into holistic objectives, e.g. necessary matters, needed matters and developmental matters, and partial objectives e.g. objectives pertaining to a chapter in Fiqh e.g. sales and marriage. He also clarified how to support an opinion by means of the objectives. He devoted a complete chapter to explain the legality and illegality resulting from the contradiction between partial texts on one hand and objectives and rules on the other hand.
Second: the financial reality in Europe:
A foundational research paper and two research papers describing the financial reality were submitted and deliberated:
“Usury and null financial contracts in non-Islamic countries” by Sheikh Abdullah ibn Yusuf Aljudai’
“towards a strategic Islamic finance in Europe (issues and problems of trade finance)” by Professor Muhammad Nouri
“The experience of Islamic banks in Europe” by Mr. Shaher Abbas.
In the first research, Sheikh Abdullah ibn Yusuf Aljudai’ elucidated the issue that some Muslims, under the guise of the opinion stated in Abu Hanifa’s School, legalizing usury and void contracts in non-Muslim countries, reject definite Islamic rules. He explained the unreliability of this opinion and its irrelevance to contemporary reality.
In the second research, Professor Muhammad Nouri stressed that Muslims in Europe are in need of backing up their developing existence through tangible economic and financial activities that enable marginalized Muslims to positively and actively integrate into the current economic system. He added that this can only be achieved if we crystallize a strategic vision setting equilibrium between fixed and changeable rules, between legal and required issues and between permission and foundational necessities.
In the third research, Mr. Shaher Abbas shed light on the commencement of the Islamic banking services in the Great United Kingdom of Britain and the amendments made to British law regarding Islamic funding. In addition, he elaborated on the services provided by the Islamic Bank of Britain and the obstacles confronting the newly established Islamic banks as a result of the fact that Muslims do not deal frequently with to them.
Third Islamic methods of legitimate finance in the European reality:
Five research papers were submitted and deliberated:
“Employing people on the basis of their trades (A comparative study between Islamic Fiqh and the labour code)” by Dr. Ali Al-Quradaghi
“Facilitating workers” by Dr. Abdus-sa-Ttar Abu Ghidda
The first and second researchers aim to explain a legitimate financial transaction, i.e. facilitating workers by means of hiring that includes hiring facilities and places whether on the basis of description or viewing. They also provide examples for hiring facilities especially that type based on description as it is new for Muslim financial institutions.
The two researchers illustrated that facilitating workers is to be done as follows: The financial institution temporarily owns the facility by means of hiring it on the basis of prompt payment and then the institution offers the facility for hiring on the basis of deferred payment. The two researchers explained, in addition to Islamic rules essential for the legality of this transaction, a number of the rules of all types of hiring. In the conclusion of the second research are included examples of the system of hiring on the basis of description entered into by financial institutions in the field of hajj, ‘Umra, education and medicine.
“Instalments and Murabaha and their banking roles according to Fiqh” by Dr. AL-Makashfi Al-Kibbashi.
The conclusion is as follows:
Definition of Murabaha: It is defined as a particular kind of sale, compliant with Sharia’, where the seller expressly mentions the cost he has incurred on the commodities to be sold and sells it to another person by adding some profit or mark-up thereon which is known to the buyer.
Selling on the basis of a deferred payment given in instalments. This is compliant with Shari’a provided the period of all instalments is known to the seller and the purchaser.
A promise to buy, in the system of Murabaha, Islamically and legally should be fulfilled by the one requesting the purchase.
In the case where a transaction is entered into on the basis of Murabaha or instalments, the price could be increased because of the deferred payments as time is a factor affecting the price? In the case of the creditor’s death, the increase incurred arising from the agreement on deferred payments should be decreased unless both the debtor and the heirs agree on keeping the same paying scheme.
Murabaha and instalment systems are means of funding loans facilitated by banks to enable to enable the less well-off to own what is productive means.
“Islamic rule regarding dealing with and working at insurance companies in non-Islamic countries” by Dr. Ali Al-Quradaghi.
In his research, Dr. Ali Al-Quradaghi elucidated the Islamic rule regarding working at cooperative and commercial insurance companies and the partial rules resulting from it and the exemptions made in this regard.
“Students’ loans in Europe; An Islamic jurisprudential study” by Sheikh Salem Ash-Shaikhi.
In the conclusion of his research, Sheikh Salem Ash-Shaikhi included the following:
A field study on the financial and educational reality of Muslim students in Britain as an example of the circumstances of Muslim students in Europe.
A legal study on students’ loan contracts and its regulations.
A study on Muslim scholars’ opinions and their proofs establishing a relation between debts and life cost.
Islamic rule for students’ loans in Europe.
On the third day, two issues were submitted and deliberated:
First: Proving the month’s commencement.
Two researches have been submitted:
“The reason on the obligatory fasting of Ramadan” by Sheikh Faysal Maulawi.
“Rules regarding fasting and prayers; an analysis in the light of Western context” by Dr. Ali Al-Quradaghi.
In brief, the two researches provided a preview to the recognized reason of the month’s commencement. Is the month’s commencement dependent on viewing the crescent? Are the astronomical calculations enough to prove the month’s commencement? Or is it dependent on the vision of the crescent harmonious to astronomical calculations as stated in the resolutions No.1/3 and 4/17 issued by the ECFR?
Due to the importance of this issue the members of the ECFR discussed it in detail.
Second: Writing the Qur’anic text in non-Arabic letters:
A research paper, raising the number of papers submitted in this session to 17, was submitted under the title “Convincing the Muslim nation with the prohibition of writing the Qur’an in Roman letters and proofs from the Qur’an and Sunnah and scholars’ opinions” by Sheikh Saleh Al-‘Ud.
In his research, Sheikh Saleh Al-‘Uda criticized a common practice among Muslims in the West, i.e. instead of writing the Qur’an in Arabic letters they write it in Roman letters known as phonetics. Some organizations printed some parts of the Qur’an in Roman letters while others printed the whole Qur’an. Dr. Al-‘Uda illustrated the errors of the Qur’an in Roman letters and how it leads to mispronouncing the Qur’an and the repercussions thereof. In his conclusion, he stated it is forbidden to write the Qur’an in Roman letters. He reached this conclusion on the basis of the rule of the prohibition of evasive legal advices supporting it by quoting opinions of ancient and contemporary scholars. He also highlighted that writing the Qur’an in Roman letters turns Muslim generations in the West away from learning Arabic, the language of the Qur’an.
The agenda of this session was resumed and the ECFR deliberated on a number of questions and issued fatwas and resolutions on the basis of the discussions and deliberations of this session:
Islamic Financial rules in non-Islamic Countries
The ECFR resolved that financial transactions in non-Islamic countries should be based on Islamic Shari’a in terms of permissibility and prohibition. It is an error to found Muslims’ financial transactions in the West on the opinion, which legalizes null contracts in non-Islamic countries. Consequently, unless there is a recognized necessity that provides justification, it is not permissible to use this opinion to justify financial transactions and contracts proven to be impermissible.
Working in Insurance Companies
Upon deliberating on the research papers, pertaining to working in insurance companies in Europe, submitted to the ECFR, the ECFR issued the following resolution:
First: Working at cooperative insurance companies is permissible provided it is limited to administrative and office work pertaining thereto.
Second: Working at commercial insurance companies is not permissible. Nevertheless, there are four exemptions:
Necessity and urgent need perceived as a necessity. For instance, if a Muslim does not find any other suitable job or if he is aware of the Islamic rule in this regard while working at an insurance company and he cannot find any other suitable job.
If a Muslim is a specialist in insurance and cannot find a job in his field except in these companies.
If his work is limited to administration or office work and he is not involved in contracting or marketing.
The above three exemptions are permissible provided:
He has explored every avenue to find a permissible job but failed.
His work at a commercial insurance company is to gain experience.
That he intends to vacate the job once he finds a permissible alternative.
A Muslim can work in a commercial insurance company if he, on his own or with the help of others, can change it into a permissible cooperative insurance company.
Rules of Hiring
Upon deliberating on the issue of employing workers and leasing, the ECFR issued the following resolution:
First: A lease can be used as follows:
Funding rent: If it is renting that ends up with ownership
Islamic contracts of renting are deemed to be among the most flexible and accurate contracts
Second employing people can be used as follows:
Educational services: An agreement could be reached between a financial organization providing these services and an educational organization (University, institute or centre) on the basis of accurate specifications, price, time, etc. The financial organization provides this service on the basis of Murabaha of proffessionals. It is permissible that the financial company reaches an agreement with proffessionals first and then they both reach an agreement with the educational organization.
Providing health services by one of the above mentioned ways.
Third: Hiring contracts in the above mentioned ways is permissible to enter into in relation to viewed or described premises and specified or described services, provided this description is accurate and does not lead to disputes.
Fourth: A hiring contract could be entered into with a number of people regarding one and the same benefit for a limited period of time without specifying a date for each of them. Moreover, each of them is entitled to avail of the benefit in the period specified for him when using it in conformity with the norm of Time Sharing. This is identical to or the same case of the Time Preparation in Islamic Fiqh.
Fifth: Subleasing is permissible provided it is not restricted by the lease or the law in effect.
Sixth: Prerequisites of hiring:
The contractors should be fit to enter into the contract.
The contract formula should be continuous and include both parties’ approvals.
Rent should be clearly specified in a way that does not allow disputes. It can be related to an international rate e.g. Libor. The two parties may agree that the rent is determined by the rate of Libor.
It is also permissible to relate the daily, weekly, monthly and yearly wages to the rate of inflation issued by the state.
The benefit should be known, either by specifying the item of contract (premises or workers, or describing it provided the description removes ignorance that leads to disputes.
The benefit should be Islamically permissible.
The benefit should be available.
It should be either timed or related to accomplishing a work.
Seventh: It is permissible to rent an item to a partner in return for some of the product of the labour e.g. renting a car in return for half of its income.
Eighth: It is permissible to enter into a renting contract that commences in the future e.g. renting a car in six months starting from day such and such.
Ninth: It is permissible to say if you finish this job in a month I will pay you one thousand Euros and if you finish it in two months I will pay you five hundred Euros or if you finish the job according to the specifications I will pay you one thousand Euros and if otherwise I will pay you five hundred Euros.
Tenth: Islamic Shari’a has set certain obligations on both employer and employee:
Obligations of employer:
Paying the wages according to the agreement or when the job is accomplished. Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, said: “Give the employee his wages before his sweat dries.”
Providing the employee with his job requirements according to the agreement.
The employer should not overburden the employee.
The employee should be allowed to take holidays according to the agreement or according to the labour article.
Facilitating health services and health insurance and the like thereof according to the agreement or according to the labour article.
Abiding to the labour article and the regulations set by the state.
Obligations of employee:
Fulfilling the job according to the agreed specifications.
Being present at work during all the business hours unless the employer gives the employee a holiday or for a legal urgent reason.
Looking after what he is responsible for in terms of machines, tools and work.
Integrity, keeping the secrets of his job and perfecting his job.
Abiding by his job regulations and the labour article effective in the country where he lives.
Eleventh: Hiring contract of employment is binding for both parties and can only be terminated in the following cases:
where the two parties agree to terminate it (resignation).
Not fulfilling the responsibilities stated in the contract.
Finding an effective defect in the rented item or non-suitability of the employee.
Twelveth: The contract of employment terminates when:
It expires or when work is completed.
The employee dies.
The place of work closes.
Students’ Loans in Europe
Upon deliberating the research paper on this topic, the ECFR issued the following resolution:
First: It is permissible for Muslim students in Europe to avail of students’ loans, offered by European countries to European citizens, to pay their study fees and cover their life cost provided they are interest-free interest-loans dependent on the rate of life cost of living and this is as follows:
It has been verified that current students’ loans are originally interest-free interest-loans.
The regulations of collecting instalments from students are set while taking into consideration the students’ circumstances. A student is not supposed to repay the loan until he obtains a job with an average wage. Moreover, he repays the loan according to the tax system organized relatively according to his income and other issues in favour of the student debtor and not the creditor’s state.
Writing the Qur’an in non-Arabic letters
Upon deliberating on this issue the ECFR issued the following resolution:
Due to the fact that the method of its reciting is entirely dependent on successive narration, it is not permissible to write, either wholly or partially, the Qur’an in non-Arabic letters. The method of reciting the Qur’an is dependent on the Sunnah and its narrated rules are final. Writing the Qur’an in Roman letters does not fulfill these conditions and leads to distorted recitation. It is also forbidden to print, publish, distribute or trade in the Qur’an written in non-Arabic letters. If it is impossible to read the Arabic text of the Qur’an, especially in the case of non-Arab new Muslims when leaning Surah e.g. Al-Fatiha, they are exempted from this prohibition provided it is accompanied by hearing recitation from someone who is good at Arabic and the text in Roman letters should be destroyed afterwards.
A Muslim Lady Marrying a Non-Muslim
I am a girl and I am twenty years old. A Christian man, who is ready to respect Islamic obligations and does not mind our children to be Muslims, propose to me. Is it permissible to marry him?
It is not permissible for a Muslim woman to marry a non-Muslim man, even though he is from the people of the Book or promises to respect her religion after marriage. With regard to mixed marriage, Allah only permits a Muslim man to marry a chaste woman from the people of the Book. Allah said: “This day are (all) things good and pure made lawful unto you. The food of the People of the Book is lawful unto you and yours is lawful unto them. (Lawful unto you in marriage) are (not only) chaste women who are Believers, but chaste women among the People of the Book, revealed before your time,” (5:5) The rule that forbids a Muslim woman from marrying a non-Muslim man is to enable her to preserve her religion, leaving no room for any, intentional or accidental, repercussions caused by this marriage on her or her offspring. Since the man is responsible for his family and should care for them, the husband is in a better position than his wife to affect her and his children. According to Islam, it is permissible for a Muslim man to marry a chaste woman from the people of the Book since if he affects her; she will embrace the true religion. In addition, according to Islam, it is not permissible for him to disrespect her religion or impose Islam on her.
In support of the above-mentioned rule, most scholars quote: Allah said: “Do not marry unbelieving women until they believe” “Nor marry (your girls) to Unbelievers until they believe” Then Allah made exeption “(Lawful unto you in marriage) are (not only) chaste women who are Believers, but chaste women among the People of the Book, revealed before your time,”. Hence, it is permissible for a Muslim man to marry a chaste woman from the people of the Book, but it is not permissible for a Muslim woman to marry a non-Muslim man.
What is the Islamic rule regarding contracts entered into by some mobile phone companies in the UK known as Cash Back i.e. The customer pays an amount of money on a monthly basis in return for taking a number of minutes and after a period of time, in spite of availing of the service, he receives a full refund?
Since the money paid to these mobile phone companies (Cash Back) does not incur interest, but rather a system of marketing, it is permissible.
A merchant sells appliances and the price is paid in instalments. A customer orders an appliance with given specifications. The merchant tells him the price he will have to pay in instalments before purchasing it. If the customer agrees, the merchant will buy it and then sell it to him. Is this method permissible?
Selling a commodity, whether appliances or otherwise, prior to owning it, is not permissible. Hakeem Ibn Huzam narrated that the Prophet, peace be upon him, said: “Sell not what you own not.” however, it is permissible for merchant to make a promise provided Murabaha is permissible in this sale. Hence, the following steps and conditions should be fulfilled:
First: the customer should promise to purchase the commodity when the merchant gets it for him. This promise is binding according to the resolutions issued by Islamic research academies. These resolutions have been issued to protect the rights of the merchant so that the customer can be compelled by law to fulfil his promise or compensate the merchant, in the case of loss.
Second: The merchant should order the commodity on behalf of the customer according to the agreed specifications.
Third: When the merchant purchases the commodity and lays his hands on it, he can sell it to the customer who promised to purchase it either in cash or instalments as agreed.
Contracts regarding what is originally permissible
I work at a company as an electrician designer for buildings and streets. Sometimes we have a project to design accommodations and drainage utilities for military bases in the gulf area. I have received a better offer in another company that has business in hospitals, airports and the holy shrine in Mecca. But it may have business in banks and hotels that usually have night clubs. Is it permissible to accept this offer?
Since your profession, electrician designer, is originally permissible, your job is permissible. The original profession is a determining factor specially yours is not limited to what is prohibited. Hence, that limited possibility should not be considered and should not affect the permissibility of your job.
Is it permissible for a Muslim to allow an ATM machine in his shop in return for certain payments taking into consideration the fact that if a user does not repay in due time, interest will be incurred?
It is permissible to have ATM machines in a shop owned by a Muslim because they are provided to facilitate access to money either from one’s account or as a loan. As for incurring interest, it is because of the customer’s behaviour and not the shop owner. As for the owner of the shop receiving payments, this is in return for facilitating the service.
Zakah on Money Saved for Marriage
My father saves money from my salary and his own money. He is reluctant to pay Zakah on this money under the guise that he is saving this money to help me in my marriage. Should we pay Zakah on this saved money or not?
Apart from the reason of its saving, if this money, saved for marriage, reaches the minimum (85 grams of gold) and remains under your possession for one full Muslim year, Zakah should be paid on that money unless you have started the procedures of marriage and need this money.
Taking Medicine to Increase or Decrease Iddat2
I know the Iddat of a divorcee is three menstrual cycles. But can I use contraceptives to control my monthly period so I can increase or decrease the period of my Iddat as we do in Ramadan for fasting?
It is not permissible for a divorcee to use contraceptives to control her monthly period because it affects the rights of others.
Imam Ibn Al-Qayiam said: “The Iddat of a divorcee has been made to enable her husband to revoke the divorce. This means it guarantees the husband’s rights and the children’s rights and the rights of her new husband if the divorcee wills to marry when her Iddat expires. Her husband has the right to revoke the divorce during her Iddat. Allah’s command is that she should not leave her husband’s house until her Iddat expires. Her child’s right is to know who his father is. Her right is her alimony during her Iddat as she is still described as a wife and in the case of a revocable divorce; she is entitled to inherit from her husband and he is entitled to inherit from her.
The above mentioned case is different to the woman who controls her monthly period to perform her Tawaf as she has prepared herself to travel. In this case it is permissible to take contraceptives to control her period.
Upon deliberating on the topics submitted to the ECFR, the ECFR recommends to Muslims the following:
That Muslims should be eager to earn legally and invest their finance through legal methods and that they should shun all types of illegal earning.
That Muslims should found financial companies and organizations based on Islamic Shari’a.
That Muslims should be eager to lean Arabic and teach it to their children and the Muslim reverts. They should exert efforts to open schools for this purpose, so that they can read and understand the Qur’an in the language it has been revealed in since the same object will not be achieved if it is transliterated or if the translation of its meanings is read in any language.
The ECFR supports cooperating with governments willing to establish Islamic financial organizations. The ECFR will be delighted to offer Islamic economic advice.
In this regard, the ECFR would like to pay tribute to the British government as it permitted the establishment and development of Islamic financial institutions. The ECFR also would like to pay tribute to the French Minister for Economics for permitting Islamic financial contracts and institutions.
The ECFR, as usual, recommends Muslims living in Europe to fulfil all their responsibilities, to reflect a good Islamic image and to be exemplary with regard to their words and actions. The ECFR recommends them to commit themselves to what is stated in the Holy Qur’an and Sunnah and what Muslim Fuqaha’ (jurists) have unanimously agreed upon regarding the obligation of fulfilling the requirements of citizenship and residence and abiding by the law and general regulations in the countries where they live. The ECFR also recommends them to shun all form of violence and, in conformity to Islamic commands, apply an approach of mercy and clemency when dealing with people and condemn whosoever goes astray from this right path.
The Council also recommends Muslims in general, and those dwelling in the West in particular, to adhere to Allah’s religion and brotherhood, tolerance, moderation, and cooperation in matters of benevolence and righteousness. They should also adopt quiet dialogue and sound methods to solve controversial problems away from the programmes of strictness and paths of extremism that would distort the image of Islam and badly harm Muslims in general, and Muslim minorities in particular. The enemies of Islam and the ignorant thereof would defame it and warn others against it and its followers and instigate other nations against it. Allah Almighty says: “Invite (all) to the Way of your Lord with wisdom and beautiful preaching and argue with them in ways that are best and most gracious.” (An-Nahl 125)
The Council concluded the proceedings of the 17th Session by expressing sincere thanks and appreciation to the European Institute for Humanities in Paris for hosting this session. The ECFR expresses its gratitude to all the brothers and sisters from France who contributed to the success of this session. Special appreciation is presented to the French Government for facilitating entry visas for members of the ECFR. Special gratitude is presented to the al-Maktoum Charity Committee for their continuous support and sponsorship of the Council. Thanks are also presented to the general secretariat of the ECFR and all the brothers and sisters who facilitated this session. Finally, thanks are also presented to the members of the media, who covered the session.
Our last prayer is praise be to Allah
Circumambulation around the Ka’ba
 Silent partnership contract
Period during which a widow or a divorcee is not supposed to marry
 Circumambulation around the Ka’ba