The 24th Ordinary Session of The European Council for Fatwa and Research Held in Istanbul | المجلس الأوروبي للإفتاء والبحوث
الخميس , نوفمبر 23 2017
الرئيسية / Final statements / The 24th Ordinary Session of The European Council for Fatwa and Research Held in Istanbul

The 24th Ordinary Session of The European Council for Fatwa and Research Held in Istanbul

The European Council for Fatwa and Research

Final Statement

The 24th Ordinary Session of

The European Council for Fatwa and Research

Held in Istanbul,

Turkey     

  

During the period

20th – 23th of Shauwal 1435 HJ

16th – 19th of August, 2014

In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful

 

    The final Statement of the Twenty-fourth Ordinary Session of the European Council for Fatwa and Research held in Istanbul, Turkey during the period 20th –23th Shauwal, 1435 Hijra corresponding to 16th– 19th of August, 2014 under the title “Islamic Jurisprudential Development Pertinent to Muslim European Women.” 

 

      Praise be to Allah, the Worlds’ Sustainer, and peace be upon our leader Muhammad and on all his family and his Companions and those who follow his guidance until the Day of Judgment.

   By Allah’s Grace and His Assistance the Twenty-fourth Ordinary Session of the European Council for Fatwa and Research was held in Istanbul, Turkey during the period 20th – 23th Shauwal, 1435 Hijra corresponding to 16th – 19th of August, 2014, chaired by His Eminence Sheikh Dr. Yusuf Al-Qaradawi, the Chairman, and attended by most of the Members of the ECFR and a number of guests and observers.

      The Twenty-fourth session of the European Council for Fatwa and Research was inaugurated by a talk delivered by Sheikh Dr. Abdullah Al-Judai, Deputy Chairman of the ECFR, highlighting the objectives targeted since the establishment of the ECFR to meet needs of the Muslim minorities in Europe by means of facilitating Fiqh, consistent with their context and founded on understanding Islamic texts and Shari’ah objectives, and through the resolutions and Fatwas the ECFR issued as well as its recommendations. Successively the guests’ talk, in which he paid tribute to the role performed by the ECFR, was delivered by His Excellency ex-minister of Tunisian religious affairs Sheikh Dr. Nour Al-Deen Al-Khadimi In the conclusion, a talk was delivered by His Eminence Imam Sheikh Yousuf Al-Qaradawi, Chairman of the ECFR, in which he elaborated on the role of the ECFR and the methodology adopted by the ECFR stressing that the ECFR is an independent body. Sheikh Al-Qaradawi explained that, in order to overcome negative aspects women suffered and the Islamically unjustified traditions imposed on them and in order to raise awareness so that women might be able to distinguish between their Islamic duties and the duties imposed on them by old-fashioned traditions, the topic of this session “Islamic Jurisprudential Development Pertinent to Muslim European Women” is important. Sheikh Al-Qaradawi also clarified women’s position in society as man’s integrated partner in establishing and protecting family. He stated that according to the Qur’an and the Sunnah women, like men, have their independent characters, they represent half of the society and they are full partners of men. Praying to Allah to remove hardship, His Excellency also shed light on the current crises in Muslims countries. 

   

       Then the ECFR resumed the agenda of its Twenty-fourth session deliberating on a number of issues pertinent to women. The following papers were submitted:

  • The European Norms and Their Impact on Woman’s Issue by Dr. Khalid Hanafi.
  • Equality before Law and the Objectives of Shari’ah By Dr. Lena Larsen.
  • Women Are Men’s Full Partners, in the Form of Women Leaving Their Homes by Dr. Abdullah Al-Judai.
  • Women in Mosques, Their Roles, Positions and Rules by Dr. Jaser Uda.
  • A Deliberation on Prohibiting Women from Going to Mosques by the Hanafi School by His Excellency Dr. Al-Qaradawi.
  • Kul’[1]and Divorce in Light of European Law by Dr. Suhaib Hasan.
  • Medical Issues Relevant to Muslims in Europe by Dr. Ali Al-Quradaghi.
  • The Procreated Child outside Wedlock and His Rules by Dr. Nou Ad-Deen Al-Khadimi.
  • Is Woman’s Witness Equivalent to Half of Man’s Witness? by Sheiekh Isam Tallima.
  •    Rebelliousness and Its Solutions by Dr. Jamal Badawi.
  • A Rule in the Opposite Sex Orientation by Dr. Abdullah Al-Judai.
  • Altering Fatwas and Its Impact on Fiqh of Minorities by Sheikh Salim Al-Shaikhi.
  • Nullifying Marriages, Which are unrecognized by Law in Foreign Countries, Through Arbitration by Dr Akram Kalash.
  • Women and Practicing Her Political Rights by Dr. Ali Al-Qurradaghi.
  • Muslim Woman during the Time of Qur’anic Revelation by Dr. Isam Al-Basheer.

   

Detailed deliberation was conducted on the contents of the above-mentioned papers. This was followed by a submission and discussion of a draft of Halal slaughtering regulations. In order to facilitate an integrated standard organizing all aspects of this issue and becoming a reference for the concerned administrations in Europe, the ECFR formed a committee to develop it in light of the literature pertinent to this matter issued by academic and professional bodies.

The ECFR concluded its session by deliberating on a number of questions raised to the ECFR and issuing the following:

First: Resolutions

 

Resolution 1/24

Woman and Mosque

Since it represents a true opportunity for Muslims; males and females, to strengthen their relations with Allah and since it provides ideal atmosphere to develop good relations among Muslims, practice Islamic rituals publicly and practice Islamic social ethics openly, mosque is of paramount importance in Islam particularly for Muslim minorities. Woman’s right to frequent mosques and remain therein to perform Islamic rituals is stressed by a number of Qur’anic verses and Sunnah reported by consecutive numbers of narrators. In this regard the ECFR resolves the following:

First: Not only is it impermissible to deny women their rights in mosques, but also those in charge of mosques should encourage women to frequent mosques. In conformity with the situation during the Prophet’s lifetime it is not conditional to have a barrier between men’s lines and women’s. In the case where there is a barrier it should not be a barrier that does not enable women to see Imams or a line of men to follow up properly.  

Second: A place inside the mosque should be made available for women to pray in as it is the case for men. They should not be annoyed inside the mosque. The Sunnah gives clear indication that it is permissible for men and women to be in a mosque provided that Islamic ethics are observed.

Third: In the case when she enters mosque for a permissible purpose such as learning about Islam, a non-Muslim woman is not supposed to be requested to do something that may cause hardship even if she is not observing Hijab provided that she is dressed decently.

Fourth: Woman has the right to remain in mosque as a practice of ‘Itikaf {Islamic seclusion in mosque}, paying a visit to someone practicing ‘Itikaf or attending a permissible function. In addition, woman has the right to give a lecture or a lesson even if her audience are men. Woman has the right to get involved in mosque administration and its functions as indicated by famous textual proofs.

In this regard the ECFR recommends Muslims in Europe and elsewhere where Muslims are minorities to be dutiful towards women in mosques in conformity with Islam and the way Islam honours women.

Resolution 2/24

Woman’s Political Rights 

The ECFR resolves the following:

  • Islam, prior to all the other systems, has stated woman’s rights in general and her right of equality in all fields of viceregency on the earth, the concept of sincerity, fidelity and support between believing men and believing women, freedom of belief, social and civil rights, eligibility, financial rights and rewards.    
  • Islam states that there are differences between men and women but these differences are due to their being males and females and they are meant to create a comprehensive equilibrium in the universe and Shari’ah.
  • Woman has the right to head organizations and states provided that her post does not cause repercussions on her family and suitable ethical atmosphere is available. Muslim scholars expressed a number of opinions regarding woman’s right to be a Caliph. It is worth mentioning here that in today’s time there is no Caliphate. Based on the afore-mentioned argument woman has the right, for instance, to vote in political elections, run political elections and take part in political parties, ministries and others.

In this context the ECFR exhorts Muslim woman in Europe, in order to serve her society and promote her community in light of succession of priorities taking into consideration Islamic rules, to participate in political activities, while being equipped with knowledge, faith, awareness and morality.   

Resolution 3/24

Treating NUSHUZ {a Rebellious Wife}

The ECFR resolves the following:

There are a number of essential principles that should be implement in order to reach the authentic rule pertinent to the issue of treating a rebellious wife:

  • Caring for one’s family, deemed to be the corner stone in every good society, and its protection are included among the fundamental objectives of Shari’ah.
  • Since marital relations should be founded on tranquility, mercy and love, husband and wife should cooperate and support one another, respect and forgive one another. The believers are brethren, sincere to each other and support one another.
  • In the case of family disagreement, it might be that husband does not like a characteristic of his wife’s but surely he likes another. Even if he does not like her, it might be that Allah makes her a source of abundant good for him. Hence, he should not make his complaint against his wife his duty overlooking his shortcomings. Only the prophets were perfect.
  • In the case when family problems become magnificently serious and husband hates his wife and the wife ill-treats her husband such as dealing with him arrogantly, despising him or neglecting her duties specified by Allah and clarified by His Prophet, peace be upon him, an attitude named in the Qur’an NUSHUZ, verse No. 34 in Surah No. 4 instructs the husband to adopt a wise approach and reason issues of concern with his wife to reach a fair solution. If this does not result in satisfactory solutions, he has the right to refrain peacefully from intimacy as an expression of disapproval hoping that his wife may stop causing him harm in action or word and may not upset him and recognize the responsibility Allah assigned to husbands i.e. Qiwamah[2] and leadership of family on the basis of justice, consultation and understanding between husbands and their wives.
  • In the case when the above-mentioned procedures fail there is no religious harm in divorce. Although it is permissible, Islam does not encourage divorce if there is a solution of lesser harm than divorce to protect family unit and avert many repercussions caused by family disintegration.
  • As for the third step referred to in the above-named verse “Hit them lightly”, it should be understood in light of the way in which Allah honours woman as He honours man and that He prohibits despising and insulting woman. Moreover the Sunnah in clear words forbids it and this is what can be understood from the context of “Hit them lightly”. The best interpretation for this verse can be in the life of the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, since to him Allah assigned the duty of interpreting the Qur’an. The Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, never hit a wife of his and condemned those who did it.

In our opinion, pondering over Islamic texts while taking into consideration inclusive as well as partial objectives of Shari’ah, the preponderant approach is to exclude light hitting in conformity with contemporary norms and effective laws harmonious with the Prophet Muhammad’s guidance.

Based on the afore-mentioned the ECFR recommends Muslims in Europe and elsewhere to:

  • Abide by the Qur’an and the Sunnah regarding mutual and integrated rights and duties of husbands and wives including taking early preventative procedures against complicated family problems and not to resort to hitting whether it is light or not following the example of the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him.
  • Raise awareness of Islamic teaching to enlighten Muslim men and women about their religion especially in relation to family affairs and avert misinterpreting the above-mentioned verse.  

Resolution 4/24

Khul’[3] in Light of European Law

The ECFR resolves as follows:

Khul’, a recognized system in Shari’ah, does not exist in European laws pertinent to family affairs as marriage in European laws does not incur paying a dowry. The closest item of European law to Shari’ah is divorce mutually accepted by husband and wife, where both of them relinquish the rights the other party owes him/her or a divorce sentenced by a judge in a case submitted by wife. Wife may receive the deferred amount of her dowry if a judge orders it. In this case she will receive it but not as a right guaranteed by Islam but rather as a financial contract husband and wife agreed upon.

In a case like this Muslims should initially complete the procedures of civil divorce. Then in the case when divorce is sought by husband and there is a deferred amount of her dowry, the husband should pay his wife her due deferred amount, whereas if divorce is sought by his wife then the husband and his wife should reach an agreement regarding the deferred amount of her dowry and if they cannot agree then let them get their matter settled at Islamic centers or Shari’ah Councils. This is legally accepted. According to international conventions for human rights minorities, wherever they might be, have the right to practice their religion. The best example for this is that in Britain Jews organize their divorce according to their religion in what is called Beth Din.

The ECFR recommends Muslims, who come across this situation in Europe, to be fully aware of the procedures implemented in civil courts and to be in full contact with legal authorities so that they might be able to communicate with them in order to find out how law can accommodate some aspects and requirements of Islamic divorce and Kul’ and the possibility of officially recognizing sentences issued by Shari’ah councils in this regard.

Resolution 24/5

Lineage of a Child Born Outside Wedlock

Authentic lineage is one of the most honourable family links, morals and Shari’ah objectives. Islam stresses that marriage is the legal way of intimacy between male and female, procreation of children and proving lineage and the results based thereon. In the case where there is a child outside wedlock a number of early and recent scholars state that if conditions and specifications are met the lineage of such child can be attributed to his father and hence, results based on this lineage can follow normally. This opinion is based on a number of textual proofs and Shari’ah rules and objectives pertinent to child’s rights, family protection, correcting mistakes, eagerness to cover people’s mistakes, encouraging repentance and eagerness to attribute children to their fathers.

First: Child born outside wedlock is attributed to his biological father provided that:

  • His father and mother should get married.
  • The child should be the son of this man.
  • The woman is not married to another man.
  • The father should request attributing the child to him.

Second: Once child’s lineage is attributed to his father all the results should follow normally.

Due to the unaerated necessity faced by the man and the woman, who have committed this sin, and the fact that the only alternative is to attribute the child to his father and solemnize marriage and in order to unify the family and apply an optimistic approach, the ECFR clarifies that adopting this opinion is more appropriate in contemporary time. An exceptional rule should not be an alternative to the general rule pertinent to the protection of lineage. It should not be misinterpreted to legislate for illegal intimacy or encourage adopting complacent approach when dealing with prohibited relationship.

The ECFR advises:

  • Young Muslims and Muslims in general to be conscious of Allah, respect people’s honour, be dutiful towards them and abide by chastity and patience.
  • Muslim families and societies to work to amend mistakes, reform defected situations and assist young boys and girls to observe their chastity and facilitate marriage.
  • Islamic organizations and countries to adopt practical solutions and policies to protect young men and women against committing sins and approaches leading to sins and their circumstances and to confront temptations blameworthy.         

Resolution 24/6

Treating a Member of the Opposite Sex

The ECFR resolves the following:

First: Primarily it is permissible for Muslim to be treated by a non-Muslim if needed.

Second: In the case of treating a member of the opposite sex, the ECFR recommends Muslims to refrain from the prohibited Khulwah[4] and abide by modesty and ethics of dealing with members of the opposite sex shunning the prohibited decking of oneself with ostentation.

Resolution 24/7

Plastic Surgeries

The ECFR resolves the following:

First: One of the Shari’ah objectives is protecting beauty and adornment. Allah says: “Indeed We have created man in the best fashion.”(Trans 95:04) Allah also says: “Ask them: “Who forbids you attire that God has given to His creatures, and the good things that He has provided?” Tell them: “They are (meant) for believers in the world, and will be theirs on the Day of Judgement.” That is how We explain Our signs to those who know.”(Trans. 07:32)

Second: The preponderant opinion in the Qur’anic exegeses is that the words “to alter God’s creation.” (Trans. 04:119) refers to altering the religion and the sound nature created by Allah such as altering a man into a woman.

Third: Necessity justifies prohibitions and what is medically needed, in general term or specific, is classified as a necessity unless it is prohibited by text.

Fourth: The Islamic rule regarding plastic surgeries:

  • Plastic surgeries operated to restore a previous situation, which was prior to distortion, damage or loss is categorized unanimously as legal.
  • Plastic surgeries aiming at treating a problem such as treating someone born with an extra or less organ or fingers connected so that he/she may have a normal shape is permissible too.

The Islamic rule regarding the two above-motioned cases is either recommended or obligatory depending on the case.

  • Plastic surgeries meant to help people have a normal shape, such as treating an up-normal organ causing embarrassment e.g. treating an unmorally big nose, orthodontics, dental implants and liposuction whether it is for medical reasons or not, is provisionally included in the Islamically recognized ameliorative objectives and hence it is legal.
  • Plastic surgeries meant to change sound nature created by Allah, such as turning a male into a female or a female into a male is forbidden unless they are operated on transgender person. If doctors determine that such transgender individual has more characteristics that are normally associated with a particular gender, it is legal to operate a plastic surgery to help him/her be orientated according to these characteristics.    

Exaggerated plastic surgeries meant to alter organs such as making one’s nose thin are prohibited.

Resolution 24/8

Muslim Minority and Altering Fatwas

The ECFR resolves the following:

It is a well-established principle by Muslim scholars that Fatwa changes when its finding change. In other words Fatwas based on public interest, norms and other things alter when these finding change. This is because the Islamic law giver recognizes people’s interest and norms as essential elements when forming these Fatwas.

The ECFR stresses the importance of this rule in the context of the Muslim minorities and that in order to fulfill its requirements scholars practicing ‘Ijtihad (reasoning), when considering matters of Muslim minorities to issue a Fatwa should take their time and think thoroughly of the context of the Muslim minority relevant to the Fatwa. Issuing a Fatwa is dependent on a number of factors. These factors may be interrelated and hence the Fatwa changes. Scholars practicing ‘Ijtihad should be aware of any change affecting their Fatwas. They should be thoroughly aware of the context of the Muslim minority to whom the issue Fatwas.   

    

Resolution 24/9

European Norms and their Impact on Issues of Muslim Women

In order to achieve the objectives of Islamic existence in the West and protect Muslims and their organizations against misconceptions and incompatibility with non-Muslims, the ECFR confirms its previous recommendations issued to Imams and Da’iyas in the West i.e. taking into consideration the European norms and traditions, when giving addresses and forming decisions and attitudes as long as they do not contradict a clear Islamic text

In this context the ECFR resolves the following:

First: Muslims in the West should not allow the traditions and norms of their home countries be an obstacle in the way of the positive integration in their European societies. They should not perceive these norms as religious text especially when it comes to issues pertinent to women such as depriving her of her full rights guaranteed by Shari’ah or imposing on her cultural aspects unjustified religiously.

Second: The European norms and traditions are valueless if they contradict clear Islamic texts such as calling for equality between man and woman in inheritance under the guise of the change of time and place. This is because the rules of inheritance are determined by clear texts unaffected by changing time and place. In order to illustrate the Islamic philosophy of inheritance and its likes the ECFR recommends adopting the explanatory methodology Shari’ah objectives.

Third: Norms, effective in Islamic jurisprudential choices, are given preference in matters of divergent views. Hence, a jurisprudential opinion consistent with European context and culture, yet not the preponderant, is worth adopting. For instance shaking hands among members of the opposite sex, deemed according to European norms common sense and an indication of respect and if not observed causes a difficulty and seen as a gesture of arrogance, is an issue regarding which Muslim jurists expressed divergent opinions.  Taking norms into consideration and in order to remove this hardship and especially as there are divergent Islamic opinions regarding this issue shaking hands with members of the opposite sex is permissible when there is a need for it provided that there is no temptation and it is done to achieve interest or prevent a loss private or public.

Second Fatwas:

Fatwa 24/01

Question: Is it permissible for women during their monthly period and post-natal period to enter mosques to attend classes of Qur’an and knowledge and other things? 

 

Answer: Allah illustrates the Islamic rule regarding monthly period in the Qur’an stating: “They will question thee concerning the monthly course. Say: ‘It is hurt; so go apart from women during the monthly course, and do not approach them till they are cleansed.”(02:22) According to Shari’ah women during their monthly periods do not pray, fast or have intimacy until they are relieved.

As for accessing mosques to avail of their good facilities, Muslim scholars have expressed two opinions:

  • It is prohibited and in support of this view a hadith is quoted in which the Prophet, peace be upon him, states: “Accessing mosque is forbidden for women during their monthly period and people in grave impurity.”[5]
  • It is permissible and in support of this view a hadith is quoted in which the ‘Aisha, may Allah be pleased with her, states: “The Prophet, peace be upon him, said to me ‘Pass me the Khumrah[6] and it is inside the mosque.’ I said: ‘I am menstruating.’ The Prophet, peace be upon him, said: ‘Your menstruation is not in your hand.”[7] ‘Aisha, may Allah be pleased with her, also narrates that a freed save woman lived in the mosque[8]. The mosque was her house, where she stayed in all her circumstances including the time of her monthly period.

The second opinion is preponderant as the second quoted hadith is authentic. Let alone, it is consistent with the principle that women have the right to access mosques. The first opinion is weak since it is established on a weak hadith.

Fatwa 24/02

Nursing by Drugs

Question: What is the Islamic rule regarding abortion in the case of being raped?     

Answer: According to the majority of the Muslim scholars, abortion, deemed a criminal, is prohibited. Nevertheless, some scholars perceive it as permissible in certain cases provided that it is conducted within the period of 120 days of pregnancy, since soul, which is an unknown matter for us explained by texts narrated about the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him,  is not breathed in embryos during this period. Such scholars state that this permissibility is dependent on the need for abortion. Once embryos is 120 days abortion is forbidden, as, then, it has become a living being having a soul. In this case abortion is a crime against a living being.

Based on the above-mentioned argument, a chaste woman, victimized by raping and as a result became pregnant, a situation that causes her and her family a serious difficulty in addition to great psychological and social repercussions, is allowed to abort her embryo during the period of 120 days as it is of lesser harm than the harm caused by the continuity of this pregnancy. In the case when the embryo is older 120 days, then, based on the above-mentioned argument, abortion is forbidden. This living being is innocent. The woman and her family should portray patience and await Allah’s reward.       

Fatwa 24/03

The Commencement of ‘Idat[9]Prior to a Sentence

Question: A woman, married religiously, got her marriage registered. She wants to get divorced, so she filled a case to get a civil divorce. Applications for civil divorce take time to settle. Prior to receiving her civil divorce, her husband divorced her religiously. How can she count her ‘Idat? Did her ‘Idat commence the moment her husband gave her divorce? Should she wait until her case is settled at court even if it takes five years?  

Answer: In Islam marriage is terminated if husband divorces his wife provided that this divorce is not issued during her monthly period but after being relieved from her menstruation in condition that no intimacy occurred in this period. From this moment her ‘Idat, during which revocable divorces may be revoked, commences. If her husband does not revoke this divorce during her ‘Idat this divorce becomes effective and this woman is not his wife any more.

Since in the above-mentioned question the marriage is registered and can be terminated by court, the woman, in order to secure rights and prevent disputes, should abide by the law of the state in this regard even though religiously it is permissible for her to get married after the expiry of her ‘Idat.

Fatwa 24/04

Pension and Zakat

I work in an organization, where members of staff, when reaching the age of 67, receive pension. Members of staff pay a tax free amount of money and the organization pays an amount of money. This situation continues until they reach the age of pension. If a member of staff wills to take some of it while he/she is between the age of 60 and 67, the tax that he/she was exempted from.   

Question: Should I pay Zakat on this money?  If yes, is the amount paid as tax included?

                  If the amount is increased by the bank where it is lodged, is it considered usury?

Answer: This is one of the forms of social security that secures an amount of money given to employees when reaching certain age and formed by contributions made by employers and employees and sometimes state as it does not impose tax on it provided that it is not claimed.

As for paying Zakat, since this amount of money is not fully owned by members of staff in a way that gives them the right to dispose of it, then no Zakat is paid annually but only once when it is received.

As for tax, it is not included as part of Zakat but taken out of the original amount prior to determining the due Zakat since tax is included as a requirement to fulfill.

As for the increase paid by the conventional bank, it is forbidden since it is usury. One may receive it to give it as charity and no Zakat is paid on it. If the money is lodged in Islamic bank or a conventional bank that provided Shari’ah complint products, then this increase is a legal investment and should be included when determining the due Zakat in the specified time for paying Zakat even if some of the money has not been under one’s possession for one full year.

  

Third Recommendations:

First: In light of calamities befalling Muslims in many Muslim lands resulting in intrigues, destruction, oppression and corruption leading to disrupting development, diving societies and emergence of radical views contradicting the Islamic way and its tolerance preached by the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, addressed in the Qur’an showing Allah’s favour on him and his nation: “We sent you not but as a mercy to all that exists.”(Trans 2:107), the ECFR, while being in pain, stresses its previous appeal, directed to Muslims resident in the West, that they should not hasten to follow deviated calls and ideologies contradicting the spirit of Islam, which emerged in a number of Muslim lands, whose advocates shed blood and loot people’s wealth and committed many other crimes that can neither be logically nor religiously justified.

Since Muslims resident in Europe are linked to their brethren wherever they might be by means of religion and belief and as part of the Muslim nation, they share the suffering of their brethren subjected to oppression and violation of their rights. These regretful incidents affect even non-Muslim, who are fair and just.  They condemned these incidents and endeavoured to support the oppressed and persecuted Muslims.

In this context the ECFR states that although it is a duty to support the wronged to stop aggression, it is not permissible for Muslims to support their brethren in illegal ways or cause harm to the societies where they live. Allah says: “And transgress not. Surely Allah lives not the transgressors.”(Trans. 02:190)

Second: The ECFR recommends Muslim women:

  • To be an example in the way they abide by their religion, while observing their duties of citizenship and positive integration in societies they live in.
  • Not to be affect by Western norms contradicting Islam and not to be limited to norms based on her social and cultural background inconsistent with their general context and not to reject general good aspects of Western society.
  • To fulfil their duties pertinent to protecting their children; boys and girls, against deviation practiced under the slogan of urbanization uncivilized and freedom uncontrolled.

The ECFR confirms the usual recommendations issued to Muslims residing in Europe as follows:

  1. Observe all rights and reflect a good image and a benevolent example through words and deeds.
  2. Muslims should be creative and encourage creativeness at all levels.
  3. Exhaust every possible means to bring up their children; boys and girls, according to Islamic contemporary concepts through establishing educational and recreational schools and centers to protect them against deviation.
  4. Exert efforts to establish Shari’ah compliant financial companies and organizations.
  5. Exert efforts to form Islamic bodies to handle their family affairs according to Islam, while observing the law of the state where they live.
  6. Work hard to attain the recognition of the state where they live of Islam as a religion and of Muslims as a religious minority like other minorities in respect of enjoying their complete rights and organizing their personal affairs, such as marriage and divorce according to the tenets of their religion.
  7. Commit themselves to what is stated in the Holy Qur’an and Sunnah and what Muslim Fuqaha’ (jurists) have unanimously agreed upon regarding the obligation of keeping the requirements of the pledge of security and the terms of citizenship and residence in the countries where they live.
  8. Shun all types of violence and adopt a merciful and wise approach when dealing with all people by virtue of their Islamic obligations and condemn any other behaviour.
  9. The Council also recommends that Muslims in general and those dwelling in the West in particular adhere to Allah’s religion and brotherhood, tolerance, moderation, cooperation in matters of benevolence and righteousness, and adopt quiet dialogue and sound methods to solve controversial problems away from the programmes of strictness and paths of extremism that would distort the image of Islam and badly harm Muslims in general and Muslim minorities in particular. The enemies of Islam and those ignorant of it would defame it and warn others of it and its followers and instigate other nations against it. Allah Almighty says: “Invite (all) to the Way of your Lord with wisdom and beautiful preaching and argue with them in ways that are best and most gracious.” (An-Nahl 125)

The Council concluded the proceedings of the 24nd Session and resolved that its 25th session will be held in October 2015. The ECFR addresses sincere thanks to the Turkish government for hosting this session by issuing relevant visas to members of the ECFR.

The ECFR would like to thank its general secretariat and all the brothers and sisters who contributed to the success of this session.  

Our last prayer is praise be to Allah and may Allah’s peace, blessing and mercy be upon Prophet Muhammad, his family and his Companions.

[1] An Islamic form of terminating marriage by wife

[2] Being in charge and responsible for support of family

[3] An Islamic form of terminating marriage by wife

[4] Being alone, unheard and unseen, in the company of a potential spouse member of the opposite sex 

[5] Abu Daoud, hadith No. 232 and Ibn Majjah, hadith No. 645

[6] A small rug Muslims prostrate on

[7] Muslim, hadith No. 298. A similar hadith narrated by Abu Hurairah is reported by Muslim under No. 299

[8] Bukhari, hadith No. 439

[9] Awaiting period during which it is permissible for woman to get married

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